Monday, May 25, 2020
There have been countless shows on television that have had a focus on black culture and issues within the community. The Television shows Fresh Prince of Bel Air and Black-ish bring to light and successfully decode the 20th to 21st century race issues, specifically black male issues that have not been adequately dealt with in the mainstream media. Mainstream television has had black characters and have covered black issues, but they often have characters that fit and fuel stereotypes about the black male. These characters are sometimes portrayed similar to what is seen in public or in the news such as gangsters and absent fathers. In the Fresh Prince of Bel Air, the Banks family is an upper middle class family and Will Smith is an athletic, young black male, while Carlton Banks is an intelligent young black male. This challenges the way that black males are often represented on television. In Black-Ish, the show is able to tackle the misrepresentation and stereotypes surrounding bl ack males as well as the community, through dialogue about things that are not usually talked about. Black-Ish is able to present these issues in a non-confrontational fashion, making the issues accessible to people outside the black community and successfully increasing awareness and understanding. By analyzing the casting as well as representation of black male characters in Fresh Prince of Bel Air, and dialogue in Black-Ish, as well as blatant misrepresentation of black males in Friday NightShow MoreRelatedMedia Effects Body Image1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesApril 6, 2014 The Effects of Mass Media on African American Women Body Images Over the past 10 years, mass media and the access to social networks has evolved substantially causing the effects of negative self-image and what is considered beautiful. Body image expectations for both African-American male and female share the battles of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations, yet African American women body images come with a stricter and more unhealthy stigma; growth of social media such as Facebook, Instagram andRead MoreBlack Press : Soldiers Without Swords991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Black Press: Soldiers Without Swords detailed the dynamic history of African-American media in the United States. Newspapers created community amongst Black Americans by connecting stories of Black life across the country, and allowed Black people the freedom to express themselves politically and socially through their own words, as opposed to White people telling them how they should feel. The story of the Black press as newspaper print faded before the end of the century, but Black p ress asRead MoreThe Beliefs Of Misconceptions And Gender, Race, And Sexuality1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesgroupsÃ¢â¬â¢ underlying different issues mostly affecting African Americans. These issues highlighted by Collins include, Ã¢â¬Å"a set of ideas and social practices shaped by gender, race, and sexuality that frame Black men and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of one another, as well as how African Americans are perceived and treated by othersÃ¢â¬ (p.7). These ideas encapsulate a false understanding of the issues surrounding the persecutions the black community undergoes frequent. The notion of Black sexual politics addresses manyRead MoreWhat s Black, Then White, And Said All Over?957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswell-known fact that technology and media outlets today play a major role in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Generally, a person has access to the media through cellphones, computers, radios in a car and television. It may be perceived by some, even within a technologically advanced socie ty such as America, that media has no effect upon enhancing cultural relationships, though many social networks do indeed connect cultures. Media and technology give people access to various cultures at an efficient and acceleratedRead MoreRace Is a Significant Factor in Identification of Individuals and Groups1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdemographic factors is a significant vehicle for the identification. The acceptation and/or toleration of specific races within society have been through and continue to go through an evolutionary process. The idea of a post-racial society revolves around the ideology that the success point has been reached between Ã¢â¬Å"us and themÃ¢â¬ . Equality between races has become legislative law within the Charter of Human Rights and Freedom, which means the battle is over. This fantasy mentality is due the naturalizedRead MoreNative Son Racism Essay724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWrightÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Native Son, addresses racial issues within the society through the character of Bigger Thomas. Bigger Thomas is a young black man living in the Chicago area in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s where he is hired as a chauffeur by a white family, the DaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s. As a black man, Bigger has a prominent feeling of anxiety and fear about everything that he does around white people, which is instilled in him from the medias racial opinions. The frequent use of media throughout the novel illuminates the prejudicesRead MoreThe Acquittal Of George Zimmerman For The Death Of Trayvon Martin1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith other friends they shared their experiences and stories on other social media platforms and subsequently created a socio-political campaign. Soon it became a powerful force of hashtag activism that is now an international movement that has more than 26 chapters globally. According to it founders the activist movement follows guiding principles that support Ã¢â¬Å"an ideological and political intervention in a world where black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise.Ã¢â¬ It was theRead MoreEssay about Disproportionate Minority Contact1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdisparate treatment within the prosecutorÃ¢â¬â¢s office? Although police and prosecutors may contend that discrimination does not occur within their agency but that does not mean discrimination doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t occur. The facts show that minorities are targeted much more than whites. There are many factors that contribute to this. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe it is any one agency that specifically targets minorities but rather the criminal justice system as a whole. The interplay between the media, the criminal justiceRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Blaxploitation Films And Chappelle s Show 1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWeekly Writing 3 Throughout history, American society has famously taken advantage of non-European cultures and traditions for their own entertainment. Major media companies, colleges, and athletic organizations have famously exploited the cultures and stereotypes of Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and African Americans for the sole purpose of profit and increased entertainment value. In American society, there has been the era of Ã¢â¬Å"Blaxploitation filmsÃ¢â¬ in which African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s society was shown through raunchyRead MoreBeauty Between Beauty And Beauty1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBeauty has become a major topic in our society for quite some time. This has led it to become regarded as important and an ongoing issue. Beauty is depicted based on how it is perceived by a certain class, race, and gender. Eventually changing the definition of how beauty is viewed. Beauty however, has become more important to women as majority research focuses on gender difference and the experience of physical attractiveness (Poran 2002). Since the early centuries, there have been numerous attempts
Friday, May 15, 2020
The upside-down or inverted question marks and exclamation points of Spanish are unique to the languages of Spain. But they make a lot of sense: When youre reading in Spanish, you can tell long before the end of a sentence whether youre dealing with a question, something that isnt always obvious when a sentence doesnt start with a question word such as quÃ © (what) or quiÃ ©n (who).Ã Where To Place Upside-Down Question Marks The important thing to rememberÃ is that the inverted question mark (or exclamation) goes at the beginning part of the question (or exclamation), not at the beginning of the sentence if the two are different. See these examples: Pablo, Ã ¿adÃ ³nde vas? (Pablo, where are you going?)Quiero saber, Ã ¿cuÃ ¡ndo es tu cumpleaÃ ±os?Ã (I want to know, when is your birthday?)Estoy cansado, Ã ¿y tÃ º? (Im tired, are you?)Eso, Ã ¿es verdad? (That, is it true?)Sin embargo, Ã ¡tengo frÃ o! (Nevertheless, Im cold!)Pues, Ã ¡llegÃ ³ la hora! (Well, its about time!) Note that the question or exclamation part does not begin with a capitalized letter unless its a word that would normally be capitalized, such as a persons name. Note also that if words not part of the question come after the question, then the closing question mark still comes at the end: Ã ¿AdÃ ³nde vas, Pablo?Ã (Where are you going, Pablo?)Pablo, Ã ¿adÃ ³nde vas, mi amigo?Ã (Pablo, where are you going, my friend?)Ã ¡Eres la mejor, Angelina! (Youre the best, Angelina!) Although it is common to treat the inverted punctuation as optional in informal contexts, such as on social media, it is mandatory in standard written Spanish. Question and Exclamation Marks Can Be Combined If a sentence is a question and an exclamation at the same time, something for which the English language has no good written equivalent, it is possible to combine the question and exclamation marks. One way is to place the inverted question mark at the beginning of the sentence and the standard exclamation mark at the end or vice versa. More common, and the preference of the Royal Spanish Academy, is to place the punctuation marks next to each other as in the third and fourth examples below: Ã ¿CÃ ³mo lo hace! (How does she do it? To translate the Spanish well, this might be said in an incredulous tone. An alternate translation might be I dont see how she does it!)Ã ¡Me quieres? (You love me? The punctuation may indicate a lack of belief in what is being responded to.)Ã ¡Ã ¿QuÃ © veste?! (What are you seeing? The tone of voice may suggest What in the world do you see?)Ã ¿Ã ¡QuÃ © estÃ ¡s diciendo!? (What are you saying? The tone of voice may indicate disbelief.) To indicate an extremely strong exclamation, it is acceptable, unlike in standard English, to use two or three exclamation points but not more: Ã ¡Ã ¡Ã ¡Idiota!!! (Idiot!)Es imposible. Ã ¡Ã ¡Ã ¡No lo creo.!!! (Its impossible. I cant believe it!) Word Order in Questions Most questions begin with anÃ interrogative pronounÃ such asÃ quÃ ©Ã or an interrogative adverb such asÃ cÃ ³mo. In nearly all such cases, the opening question word is followed by the verb and then the subject, which will be a noun or pronoun. Of course, it is common to omit the subject if it isnt needed for clarity. Ã ¿DÃ ³nde jugarÃ an los niÃ ±os? (Where would the children play? DÃ ³nde is the interrogative adverb, jugarÃ an is the verb, and the subject is niÃ ±os.)Ã ¿QuÃ © significa tu nombre? (What does your name mean?)Ã ¿CÃ ³mo comen los insectos? (How do insects eat?) If the verb has an direct object and the subject is not stated, the object typically comes before the verb if it would in the equivalent English sentence: Ã ¿CuÃ ¡ntos insectos comiÃ ³ la araÃ ±a? (How many insects did the spider eat? Insectos is the direct object of comiÃ ³.)Ã ¿QuÃ © tipo de celular prefieres? (Which type of cellphone do you prefer? Tipo de celular is the direct object of prefieres.)Ã ¿DÃ ³nde venden ropa guatemalteca? (Where do they sell Guatemalan clothing. Ropa guatemalteca is the direct object of venden.) If the question has a stated subject and an object, it is common to use a verb-object-subject word order if the object is shorter than the subject and a verb-subject-object order if the subject is shorter. If theyre of similar length, either order is acceptable. Ã ¿DÃ ³nde venden ropa los mejores diseÃ ±adores de moda? (Do the best fashion designers sell clothing? The subject, los mejores diseÃ ±adores de moda, is much longer than the object, ropa.)Ã ¿DÃ ³nde compran los estudiantes los libros de quÃ mica farmacÃ ©utica? (Where do the students buy the pharmaceutical chemistry books? The subject, los estudiantes, is shorter than the object, los libros de quÃ mica farmacÃ ©utica.) Key Takeaways Spanish uses inverted question and exclamation marks to begin and end questions and exclamations, respectively.If a sentence has an introductory phrase or word that is not part of the question or exclamation, the opening mark comes at the beginning of the question or exclamation.Question and exclamation marks can be combined for exclamatory questions or exclamations that take the form of a question.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
We all need a little change in our lives. In the novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, the author Harper Lee wants just that. Lee wants to change some political and social norms and she projects this change in a fictional southern town in Maycomb, Alabama circa 1930s. This tiny town is like itÃ¢â¬â¢s own little world; no one really comes in and no one really leaves. The one issue that Lee points out about this town is racism and judgement. Maycomb is a racially divided town. Atticus Finch, our main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s father, is one of the rare people of the town that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t let the racism of the town get to him. Atticus is all for equality on both side of the picture. That is why he is such a known lawyer. Lee also used literary devices and terms to prove her points and better her writing throughout the novel. A few things Lee wants to change for the better are racism and equality, fairness, and not judging a book by itÃ¢â¬â¢s cover. Maycomb may be a small town, but as a result, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a racial town as well. Since the town is divided, people see racism everyday. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why when it came to Tom RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s case, they chose Atticus to represent Tom. Tom Robinson is a black man who was said to sexually assault Mr. Bob EwellÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, Mayella, even though Tom was crippled from an accident as a child. Ã¢â¬Å"In our courts, when it s a white man s word against a black man s, the white man always wins. They re ugly, but those are the facts of lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ said Atticus while he was explaining what had happened toShow MoreRelatedKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: How a Story could be based on True Events in Everyday LifeDaisy GaskinsCoastal Pines Technical CollegeÃ¢â¬Æ'Harper Lee was born in Monroeville, Alabama. Her father was a former newspaper editor and proprietor, who had served as a state senator and practiced as a lawyer in Monroeville. Also Finch was known as the maiden name of LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. With that being said Harper Lee became a writer like her father, but she became a American writer, famous for her race relations novel Ã¢â¬Å"ToRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesworld-wide recognition to the many faces of prejudice is an accomplishment of its own. Author Harper Lee has had the honor to accomplish just that through her novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, a moving and inspirational story about a young girl learning the difference between the good and the bad of the world. In the small town of Monroeville, Alabama, Nelle Harper Lee was born on April 28, 1926. Growing up, Harper Lee had three siblings: two sisters and an older brother. She and her siblings grew up modestlyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the book, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee illustrates that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s a sin to kill a mockingbirdÃ¢â¬ throughout the novel by writing innocent characters that have been harmed by evil. Tom RobinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s persecution is a symbol for the death of a mockingbird. The hunters shooting the bird would in this case be the Maycomb County folk. Lee sets the time in the story in the early 1950s, when the Great Depression was going on and there was poverty everywhere. The mindset of people back then was that blackRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHarper Lee published To Kill a Mockingbird during a rough period in American history, also known as the Civil Rights Movement. This plot dives into the social issues faced by African-Americans in the south, like Tom Robinson. Lee felt that the unfair treatment towards blacks were persistent, not coming to an end any time in the foreseeable future. This dark movement drove her to publish this novel hopeful that it would encourage the society to realize that the harsh racism must stop. Lee effectivelyRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee963 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrowing up, when older characters give advice to children or siblings.Growing up is used frequently in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. Harper Lee uses the theme growing up in To Kill a Mockingbird to change characters opinion, develop characters through their world, and utilizes prejudice to reveal growing up. One major cause growing up is used in To Kill a Mockingbird is to represent a change of opinion. One part growing up was shown in is through the trial in part two of the novelRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee takes place in Maycomb County, Alabama in the late 30s early 40s , after the great depression when poverty and unemployment were widespread throughout the United States. Why is the preconception of racism, discrimination, and antagonism so highly related to some of the characters in this book? People often have a preconceived idea or are biased about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to live, dress, or talk. Throughout To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee examines the preconceptionRead MoreHarper Lee and to Kill a Mockingbird931 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHarper Lee and her Works Harper Lee knew first hand about the life in the south in the 1930s. She was born in Monroeville, Alabama in 1926 (Castleman 2). Harper Lee was described by one of her friends as Queen of the Tomboys (Castleman 3). Scout Finch, the main character of Lees Novel, To Kill a Mockinbird, was also a tomboy. Many aspects of To Kill a Mockingbird are autobiographical (Castleman 3). Harper Lees parents were Amasa Coleman Lee and Frances Finch Lee. She was the youngestRead MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee presents as a Ã¢â¬Ëtired old townÃ¢â¬â¢ where the inhabitants have Ã¢â¬Ënowhere to goÃ¢â¬â¢ it is set in the 1930s when prejudices and racism were at a peak. Lee uses Maycomb town to highlight prejudices, racism, poverty and social inequality. In chapter 2 Lee presents the town of Maycomb to be poverty stricken, emphasised through the characterisation of Walter Cunningham. When it is discovered he has no lunch on the first day of school, Scout tries to explain the situation to MissRead MoreKill A Mockingbird, By Harper Lee1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessuch as crops, houses, and land, and money was awfully limited. These conflicts construct Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, To Kill a Mocking Bird. In To Kill a Mocking Bird, Lee establishes the concurrence of good and evil, meaning whether people are naturally good or naturally evil. Lee uses symbolism, characterization, and plot to portray the instinctive of good and evil. To Kill a Mocking Bird, a novel by Harper Lee takes place during the 1930s in the Southern United States. The protagonist, Scout Finch,Read MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1876 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThough Harper Lee only published two novels, her accomplishments are abundant. Throughout her career Lee claimed: the Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, Goodreads Choice Awards Best Fiction, and Quill Award for Audio Book. Lee was also inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Letters. This honor society is a huge accomplishment and is considered the highest recognition for artistic talent and accomplishment in the United States. Along with these accomplishments, her
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Strategic International Business Management, a Case Study of Hays? Answer: Introduction Expanding into foreign countries is one of the widely used strategies that business organizations implement for further growth. Organizations generally plan their international or global expansions in such a way that that an actual operational presence can be maintained in those countries (Yu, 2012). The key to such international expansions lie in selecting an appropriate market for the expansion, besides implementing strategies to draw the attention of the target customers of that market. This study firmly focuses on analyzing the strategy for expending the business in foreign market with a special case study to Hays. However, this study aims to explain the selection of target market and the macro environmental factors for the selected market. In addition to this, the report also provides information regarding the threats and opportunity for expanding into the selected market (India) besides recommending the market entry strategy for Hays. 1. Identifying potentially attractive target market 2. Rationale for choosing the market In order to decide on the target market for the future international expansion of Hays, five countries had been chosen, namely Argentina, India, Kenya, Norway and Thailand. After considering various matrices, like that of the GINI index, the WEF reports on the global competitive index, the corruption index and the various economic factors of the said countries (provided in appendix), we have come to the conclusion that at present, India should be considered as the most attractive target market for Hays (Worldbank.org, 2015). India is the largest democracy of the world: a federal system of governance runs the country. As in most democracies, each government decision depends upon several political factors: hence the decisions taken by the national government are generally based on the agendas of the ruling party (Malhotra, 2014). For the last few decades, the political condition of the country has been quite stable, a fact that encourages foreign investments in the industries of the country (Desai and Garozzo, 2011). Last but not the least, the government of India encourages such investments in all industrial sectors f the nation. At present, the GDP of the country is approximately 6.3 % and the Indians ranks 3 in the list of the countries having the most purchasing powers. The liberal foreign capital policy, along with the reduction of the requisites for trade licensing has been influential in the growth of this economy (Worldbank.org, 2015). A notable point is that the India economy is quite strong and is not affected much by the recession of the western countries. The Indian society is closely tied to the family values: family is one of the most important factors to the Indians (Kumar et al. 2014). Since the number of aged people in the country is increasing steadily, the Indian families tend to spend large quantities on the treatment and other requirements of the aged persons of the families. Besides this, in spite of education being quite expensive, Indian families emphasize much on the education of their children (Mishra, 2013). On the other hand, in spite of having a large skilled young workforce, the market is not able to provide suitable employment to them (Heritage.org, 2015). The ever-increasing expenses and the unavailability of suitable jobs are influencing the Indian youth to search for highly paid jobs outside the country. Political: Largest democracy Federal government Stable political scenario Business environment controlled by various political factors Government encourages industrial investment Economical: Growing economy, current GDP of 6.3 % approximately. 3rd highest GDP in terms of purchasing power of citizens Well developed taxation system Reduced industrial licensing Liberal foreign capital policy 100 percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) allowed Strong economy, little effect of western recession (Godwin, Kalapana and Valli, 2013) Social: Aging population Rise in aged employment High family values Educated and skilled young workforce Underemployed youths High demand for onshore employment Technological: Rise of the IT industry due to skilled workforce Steady growth of technical research and development area Self sufficient power sector Legal: Strong legal system Utilizes International Trade regulations Policies for minimum wage increase, discrimination against disables, discrimination against gender etc Environmental: Rapid urbanization leading to large scale pollution Depletion of natural resources Figure 1: PESTLE analysis of India (Source: Parikh and Gabbad, 2014) In the last few years, the county has also made much development in the technical and legal domains: both these factors now act as strong pillars of the economy. Thus, it can be said that at present, India appears to be the most suitable market in which the organization s like Hays can expand their business to. 3.Key strategic issues the firm faces in expanding in the Indian market 3.1. The opportunities and the threats 3.1.1 Opportunities: At present, the following factors can be considered as the opportunities to the organization: Less competition in the market: Although several local and national-level human-resource recruiting organizations exist in the Indian market, no globally accepted brand is operating in the nation as of now (Haider and Dutta, 2012). Thus, Hays Specialist Recruitment, being the first globally acclaimed recruiter to introduce their operations in the market, could utilize this void to the fullest. Latest trend of seeking jobs in the Europe Union: The reports by the World Bank indicate that the unemployed or underemployed youths of India as a whole are targeting the positions or vacancies available at the European Union (Khan, 2015). Hays, being world famous name for providing employment in the United Kingdom, would naturally be their first choice (Solutions, 2015). High Unemployment rate: The unemployment rate of India is quite high in comparison to the GDP of the country (BBC News, 2015). Fast development: India is developing fast as far as technological advancements are concerned. Skilled workforce: The standard of education is quite high: thus, skilled workforce is available in the market. Demand for employment in the European Union: Most of the educated and skilled youths of the country either is unemployed or is under employed: thus, there exists a trend of searching for jobs outside the country (Rakhman, 2016). However, most of the job seekers are looking for opportunities that would provide them with higher financial benefits 3.1.2. Threats: At present, the following factors can be considered as the opportunities to the organization: The emergence of new competitors in the market: Local or national level recruiting organizations might emerge in the market and offer services at rates lower than that of Hays. Such organizations, can thus pose threats to the business of the organization. The condition of the economy of the United Kingdom: The current condition of the European economy is not very stable: besides this the Hays depends entirely on the western economy and would be largely affected by the recession prevalent in the west (Razghandi, Hashim and Mohammadi, 2012). Strength 1. The brand name 2. Management experienced in global operations; operates across 33 countries in the world, provides employment to around 8000 workers. 3. Long industry experiences 4. Business concentrated on recruitment 5. Large market share 6. Growth in revenue collection Weakness 1. Still not established across all emerging economies of the world 2. Late entry in the Asian subcontinent Opportunities 1. Less competition in the market 2. Latest trend of seeking jobs in the Europe Union 3. The high unemployment rate 4. Future Global investments 5. Continuous technical development 6. Demand for employment in the European Union 7. Presence of skilled underemployed or unemployed youth Threats 1. The emergence of new recruiting organizations in the market 2. The condition of the economy of the United Kingdom 3. Non resistant to recession 4. Strong trade and outsourcing laws Figure 2: SWOT analysis of Hays (Source: Yuniarti, 2015) 3.2 The strength and the weakness 3.2.1 Strengths: At present, the following factors can be considered as the strength of the organization: The brand name: Hays Specialist Recruitment had been operating in the field of human resource recruitment from way back in 1969. At present, the organization is considered to top the list of all those recruiting organizations that operate in the international domain and recruit employees in various industries located in the UK (Kolios and Read, 2013). Needless to say, the brand name of the organization would be the primary advantage of the organization (Haysplc.com, 2015). Management experienced in global operations: Hays Specialist Recruitment been operating in the international domain for more than a decade (from 2003) and at present operates across 33 nations of the world (Xingang, Jiaoli and Bei, 2013). The organization thus has an experienced management team who are able to tackle the various constraint and threats being presented to the operational activities of the country by the foreign economic environment (Magruder, 2012). This team has the potential to become a factor to the success of the new venture. Long industry experiences: Hays had been operating in the market for a very long period of time, since 1969. Thus, the experience collected over this period would be helpful in conducting the business in the foreign market (Jhamb, D. and Kiran, 2011). Business concentrated on recruitment: The business of the organization is based entirely in the recruitment sector: thus, the management is able to focus on this sector completely. Large market share: At present, the Hays has the largest market share in the recruitment industry of the United Kingdom (Wrona and TrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¦pczyÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¾ski, 2012). Needless to say,the large market share is one of greatest strengths of the organization. Growth in revenue collection: In spite of the fact that the current economic condition of the European Union is not satisfactory, there has been a significant growth in the revenue collections made by the organization, as compared to the last financial year Kingdom (Haysplc.com, 2015).. 3.2.2 Weakness: At present, the following factors can be considered as the strength of the organization: Still not established across all emerging economies of the world: The organization is still not established in all the emerging economies of the world (Ruhela and Banerjee, 2014). This should be considered as one of the weaknesses of the organization as the over-dependence on the European economy might affect the organization negatively. Late entry in the Asian subcontinent: Various globally acclaimed organizations have entered in to the Asian market for quite some time (Mishra, 2013). The late entry in to this flourishing market and the inability to capture it before the others might actually be considered as a weakness on the part of the organization (Sasidhar and Reddy, 2012). 4. Modes of entry into the market 5.1 Various Modes of entry into India In general, while taking entry into any foreign market, most organizations utilize one of the following modes of entry: Exporting: The process of providing services or products developed in one country to the citizens of another country is often termed as exporting (Wrona and TrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¦pczyÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¾ski, 2012). Since the services provided by Hays Specialist Recruitment are not developed at any country, such mode of entry would not be applicable for the organization (Caroli, Cucculelli and Pongelli, 2015). Licensing: International licenses allow foreign organization to produce products for specific markets. Since Hays does not manufacture any product, such mode of entry would not be possible for the organization (Hilmersson and Jansson, 2012). Franchising: The business mode in which independent business owners use the brand names of reputed parent companies so as to conduct business and pay royalties in exchange, is known as franchising (van Wijngaarden, Scholten and van Wijk, 2012). Even this mode of market entry would not be suitable for Hays Specialist Recruitment as the organization operates solely on the digital platform. 5.2 Recommendations In general, while taking entry into any foreign market, most well established brands utilize the wholly owned subsidiary mode of entry (Holtbrugge and Baron, 2012). Such organizations can in practice, utilize one of the two under-mentioned strategies: Greenfield investment: It encourages the establishment of new wholly owned subsidiary and is associated with the financial risks of setting up a new business in a foreign market (Impullitti, Irarrazabal and Opromolla, 2013). Acquisition which encourages the merging of an existing organization with the one that is about to enter into the new market. Since Greenfield investments require much time for their establishments in the market and are associated with high financial risk, such mode of entry is not being recommended to the management of Hays (Hilmersson and Jansson, 2012). On the other hand, acquisition processes mandate the taking over of the competitors or business partners who are currently operating in the market, thus enabling the new entrant to utilize the existing resources and competencies (Adeoye, 2015). The management of Hays can utilize this option to enter into the Indian market: taking over any existing recruiting organization would not only provide Hays with the opportunity to utilize their physical stores of offices, but would also allow them to utilize the services of employees having the experienced of working in the Indian market (Razghandi, Hashim and Mohammadi, 2012). The strategic acquisition of yet another recruiting organization that has the experience of working in the Indian market would help Hays to utilize the existing distribution channels, besides using the technological and business process: needless to say the overall business of Hays would be benefitted due to this process (Xingang, Jiaoli and Bei, 2013). However, the management of Hays requires in considering the following points being the acquisition process: The work culture of the organization must match with the work culture prevalent in Hays (Wrona and TrÃâÃ¢â¬ ¦pczyÃâ¦Ã¢â¬Å¾ski, 2012). The acquisition process might result in apprehension between the existing employees of the organization and the ones that Hays intends to employ (Holtbrugge and Baron, 2012). 5. Conclusion This report provides a insight to the plans and strategies that should be adhered to while considering the future international expansion of the Hays Specialist Recruitment. The discussion made in the appendix section has been helpful in finalizing the market that should now be targeted by the organization for their future expansions: the PESTLE analysis of the target market has been provided in the section 1 of this report, which is indicative of the correctness of the choice. In the next section of the report, the SWOT analysis of the organization has been provided, so as to identify the factors which would be considered as the strength, weakness, opportunity and threats of the organization during the international expansion into the Indian market. The modes of entry that should be used by the organization for initiating their operations in the Indian market have been discussed in the third section of the report. The discussions made in the report indicate that: Hays Specialist Recruitment should choose India as the target market for their next international expansion. The management should utilize the acquisition mode of market entry so as to start operating in India. References BBC News, (2015). Who are the UK's foreign workers? - BBC News. [online] BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-27410522 [Accessed 26 Dec. 2015]. Caroli, M.G., Cucculelli, M. and Pongelli, C., (2015). Family Firms and Foreign Market Entry Modes: The Role of Family Involvement.L'industria,36(1), pp.93-110. Desai, D. and Garozzo, F., (2011). Intercultural Management: Morocco and India. Transparency.org, (2015). How corrupt is your country?. [online] Transparency.org. Available at: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. economist.com, (2015). [online] Available at: https://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21669967-house-prices-are-rise-again-around-world-upwardly-mobile [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Godwin, B.J., Kalapana, D. and Valli, S., (2013). Foreign Direct Investment In Indian Retail Sector-Pestle Swot Analyses.International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering,3(3), p.265. Haysplc.com, (2015). Join Hays. [online] Haysplc.com. Available at: https://www.haysplc.com/join-hays [Accessed 26 Dec. 2015]. Heritage.org, (2015). Nigeria Economy: Population, GDP, Inflation, Business, Trade, FDI, Corruption. [online] Heritage.org. Available at: https://www.heritage.org/index/country/nigeria [Accessed 26 Dec. 2015]. Hilmersson, M. and Jansson, H.,( 2012). International network extension processes to institutionally different markets: Entry nodes and processes of exporting SMEs.International Business Review,21(4), pp.682-693. Holtbrugge, D. and Baron, A., (2013). Market entry strategies in emerging markets: An institutional study in the BRIC countries.Thunderbird International Business Review,55(3), pp.237-252. Impullitti, G., Irarrazabal, A.A. and Opromolla, L.D.,( 2013). A theory of entry into and exit from export markets.Journal of International Economics,90(1), pp.75-90. Jhamb, D. and Kiran, R., (2011). Organized retail in India-drivers facilitator and swot analysis. Kumar, N., Wadhwa, A., Chaubey, K.K., Singh, S.V., Gupta, S., Sharma, S., Sharma, D.K., Singh, M.K. and Mishra, A.K., (2014). Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of an orf virus from sheep in Makhdoom, India.Virus genes,48(2), pp.312-319. Malhotra, A., (2014). Relationship Between Outward Fdi And Exports: A Causality Analysis For India.International Journal of Management and Social Sciences (IJMSS),3(2), pp.107-116. Mishra, S.K., (2013). Global Competence of the Indian Manufacturing Industries.Available at SSRN 2233474. Parikh, A. and Gabbad, H., (2014). Fdi In Service Sector And Its Impact On Economic Development Of India.International Journal of Applied Services Marketing Perspectives,3(1), pp.744-749. Rakhman, A., (2016). Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): A Survey of Entrepreneurs Perspectives (Makassar Insight).International Business Management,10(4), pp.540-551. Razghandi, M., Hashim, N.H. and Mohammadi, M.,( 2012), March. A survey of market orientation and performance within ASEAN countries. In3rd International Conference on Business and Economic Research Proceeding(pp. 12-13). Ruhela, S. and Banerjee, S., (2014). Status of Indian Domestic Industries Vis-A-Vis Mncs in India: A Comparative Analysis.Transnational Corporations Review,6(2), pp.132-146. Sasidhar, P.V.K. and Reddy, P.G., (2012). SWOT analysis of veterinary and animal science education in India: implications for policy and future directions.The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension,18(4), pp.387-407. Team, F.M.E.,(2013). PESTLE Analysis. Strategy Skills. Weforum.org, (2015). [online] Available at: 3. https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-competitiveness-report-2014-2015 [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. World Bank, (2015). [online] World Bank. Available at: 1. https://www.tradingeconomics.com/country-list/interest-rate [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Worldbank.org, (2015). [online] Available at: 4. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Worldbank.org, (2015). [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Worldbank.org, (2015). [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Worldbank.org, (2015). [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Worldbank.org, (2015). [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.KLT.DINV.CD.WD [Accessed 29 Dec. 2015]. Yu, L., 2012.The international hospitality business: Management and operations. Routledge. Yuniarti, D. (2015). Analisis SWOT Sampah Antariksa Indonesia. Buletin Pos dan Telekomunikasi, 11(1), p.13.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
How rockin would it be to earn an extra $1K in less than 3 weeks Ã¢â¬â from a brand new client? Almost sounds a bit crazy eh? I dont know about you, but I typically average around $500 per month from each of my recurring blogging clients. So, how did I double this with aÃ client I recently landed? I didnt raise my rates. I didnt land a copywriting gig Ã¢â¬â although Im itching to do some copywriting in the future. I didnt even land a recurring gig. This gig is on-demand and ghostwritten. Pretty standard for freelance writing. So, how did I do it? Ive Never Talked About This Before When I think of what it takes to be a successful freelance writer, I typically think of: Dedication Passion Persistence Strong marketing ability Social presence The right attitude to make it as a freelance writer But, I never considered Ã¢â¬â or even talked about Ã¢â¬â basic professionalism as a key to success. Its always a given in my book. I dont know about you, but I want to wow my clients. I want to be their go-to writer when they need a blog post or article written. I must be doing something right Ã¢â¬â because my clients are obviously impressed by me. So, I was surprised how a simple thing I was doing for this client turned into a big payout. Want to know what it was? I made sure to be prompt. That was it. I was available. Being There At the Right Time The agreement I had with this new client was on an ad hoc basis. He has a team of writers working for him so I figured I would get an assignment maybe once a month. The client requested an ad hoc piece right away, which I agreed to write, while I continued working on other client work. Then, a little while later, I received this email: Even though I was quite busy at the time, I jumped at the opportunity. I said sure, no problem, and eventually this turned into the client asking me to write several posts over the month. I didnt turn down work. One writer quitting for the client turned into a $1K writing opportunity for me. Hows that for being prompt and available? Is That All It Takes? Im a busy WAHM. Now that Im in the midst of potty training my twin toddlers, my time is split between potty duty and client work. But, even though my days are full, I do my best to balance work and life. I work a little bit every day. There are many freelance writers that clock in at 8 am and clock out at 5 pm. They take the weekends off and dont answer their work email until Monday morning. Kudos to them. But, if a client emails me on a Sunday morning, Ill be sure to get back to them within the day. And, if they ask me to do a rush job, you bet I will do my best to say yes. Established freelance writers may think differently. Ive only done this a year so Im eager to grow my business and make freelance writing viable. Im also only working part-time most days, so every day I play with my children, cook their meals, do the laundry and write for my clients. I slip in social media throughout the day, but there will be days where I dont even check my Twitter or Facebook. It all evens out for me. When my children go to school, Ill be able to structure my day more like from 8am-3pm, but for now, Im fine with my splintered schedule. I do feel obligated to be prompt and available to my clients because I only have very limited time during the day to work. Im still new and want to make my mark in this business, and being available helps me achieve this. What This Means For You Whats so great about professionalism is that anyone can do it, especially if you are starting out as a freelance writer. Doing these little things can help you stand out when you dont have a portfolio or testimonials yet. So, dont ever think no ones going to hire you because youre new to freelance writing. With a killer pitch, a persistent attitude and professionalism in the bag, you will land a client in no time. And to help you out, here are some other ways you can show your professionalism to a new client: Exceed those deadlines Ã¢â¬â hand in your work days before its due. Clients will definitely notice how keen you are and may be inclined to give you more work. Respond to emails right away (or as soon as you can) Ã¢â¬â clients can come from all over the world, so when they shoot off an email to you, respond quickly. Go the extra mile for clients Ã¢â¬â I often ask clients if they want me to upload my post into their WordPress site. More times than not, clients tell me what a big help that is. Another thing I often do is include a feature image in my service package. This is what one client told me after I uploaded a featured image (flat design): Get Out There Today I would never have thought being prompt would pay off so big. But, it goes to show that we are all just people. People want to be treated with respect. So, if youre new to freelance writing this one simple thing can really skyrocket your business. Be that writer thats available, respond to your emails right away and always put your best foot forward. Now its your turn Ã¢â¬â do you have a simple thing thats helped you succeed in your freelance writing business? Id like to hear about it!
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Positivism Essay Example Positivism Paper Positivism Paper Positivism is a theoretical and methodological approach in contemporary criminology. Positivists believe that human behavior is shaped by biological, psychological or social factors and forces. These factors and forces are called individual pathology which deter the decision-making and control ability of an individual and results in behavioral problems (White Haines, 2003). To extend to legal definition, crime is defined as individual pathology to obey law and to conform to moral consensus of the society. Positivism approach in criminology examines the trait distinctions between offenders, rather than on the criminal acts as the focus of analysis. Also, positivism determines how these differences predispose a person towards criminality (White Haines, 2003). Positivists believed that these traits observed can be diagnosed and treated by dealing with and removing the factors and forces that cause the offending behavior to occur. Rather than punishment, positivism directs toward the treatment of offender as a response to crime (White Haines, 2003). The study of positivism is to classify and quantify human behaviors to uncover the causal relations between deviants traits and the committed crime. Therefore, positivism is a scientific approach in the criminal justice system. Psychological positivism Positivism concerning with psychological factors induced behavior is called psychological positivism. The consequences and impact of individual trauma are psychological factors which provoke behavior problems (White Haines, 2003). These psychological factors hinder the cognitive development in decision making, social understanding and moral reasoning. Thus, people with psychological problem are potential to commit in crime as they are unconscious in doing so (White Haines, 2003). Based on psychological positivism, criminals are associated with one of these psychological theories: psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive and physiological theory (Senna Siegel, 1990). The following will explain these theories by the case of man rape against woman. (a) Psychoanalytic theory Psychoanalytic theory was developed by Sigmund Freud (Senna Siegel, 1990). He believed that the personality arises from a conflict between three interacting systems: id, ego and superego (Senna Siegel, 1990). Id is unconscious energy that strives to satisfy instant gratification, it operates on the pleasure principle. Superego incorporates the moral norms of the society that how one ought to behave. Ego is conscious part of personality that satisfies the ids desires in ways that realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. It operates on the reality principle and struggles to reconcile the conflict between ego and superego. Psychoanalysts believe that law violators may suffer from personality disorder which is caused by damaged egos or superego (Senna Siegel, 1990). The personality disorder is self control inability which denoted that the capacity to repress urges is diminished. Criminals seek immediate gratification of wishes without consideration of right and wrong or the need s of others in the absence of self control. Humans are impulsive and anti-social in nature, they learn to aside to law through the system of self control. Low self control is consisted of incapability of defer gratification, lack of perseverance, and preference for risky and physical behavior (White Haines, 2003). To relate rape with self control theory, rape is seen as a gratification from sexual provocation. Mens sexual drive is aroused by womens dress, presence or movements. The drive is power and is so overwhelming to control (Vogelman, 1990). Men have no choice but to rape for a surge of excitement. As Groth and Birnbau (1979) argued, rape is not a symptom of mental illness but of personality dysfunction (cited in Hall, 1995: 74). Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) argued that child-rearing is critical to the development of self-control (cited in White Haines, 2003: 47). Family which lack of harmony, emotional warmth, and mutual acceptance promote the development of delinquency. Parents in these families treat the child aggressively or overly strict. Child abuse and neglect are also found in these families (Friedrich, 2003). Through such experiences, children learn aggressive behavior via modeling and perform similar reactions in the future. Warrne, Hazelwood and Reboussin (1991) reported that 76% rapists had experienced some sort of sexual abuse when they were children (cited in Hall, 1995: 75). These abuses include physical penetration or coercion to watch sexual act by assaults who were their family member or known assailants such as teacher, neighbor or friend (Hall, 1995). (b) Behavioral Theory Behavioral theory believes that behavior is determined. It is learned from others or through experiences. Human beings learn from daily observations (Senna Siegel, 1990). For example, youth exposed to aggressive, antisocial behavior on television and movies are likely to copy that violent behavior. Similarly, reading pornography laced with violence causes people to commit to rape. Laboratory researchers have claimed that media exposure on sexual aggression such as violence, degrade and humiliate against women encourage sexual offends (Howitt, 1998). It have been found that the majority of rapists to be of average or above average intelligence, educational level and income. However, they have inability to form or maintain emotionally intimate relationships with others (Hall, 1995). In fact, antisocial behavior can be induced by social disability such as deprivation or discrimination. Also, when people are unable to attain what they desire, they become frustrated and their potential for aggression is increased (Vogelman, 1990). Physical acts are often the quickest way to express anger or stress to diminish the inability and impairments (Conley, Luckasson Bouthilet, 1992). Groth and Hobson (1083) defined rape as a sexual expression of aggression against women (cited in Howitt, 1998: 91). This can be illustrated by anger rape. Anger rape involves physically force than necessary to overpower and damage the victim to obtain sex. Abusive, obscene and degrading languages are accompanied with anger rapist to express their hostility (How itt, 1998). This indicates that rape cannot be understood in terms of sexual desire alone. (c) Cognitive theory Cognitive theory focuses on how people process and store information. A child may do what is right simply to avoid punishment. The same person will do what is right to avoid hurting others in later life. This is called moral reasoning (Senna Siegel, 1990). Moral reasoning determines the perception one acquired. Perception dominates people behavior. Moral reasoning also endeavor one to obey law on behalf of their social responsibility and to identify the perspectives, feelings or thoughts of the others (Murphy Clare, 2003). Based on these theories, criminals are probably to have faulty perception and information processing as they are unable to think logically in the system of axiom. Axiom is the causal relationship of if and then, that is the impact of criminals behavior (Conley, Luckasson Bouthilet, 1992). Senna Siegel (1990) suggested that criminals are significantly lower in their moral judgment than non-criminals as they have limited insight into the motivations and character istics of others. They perceive other people as more aggressive than they are. Undoubtedly, they are more likely to be vigilant and suspicious. When criminals attack victims, they believe they were actually defending themselves (Senna Siegel, 1990). For male rapists, women are percept as sex objects and they believe that women are not worthy of respect since men are more competitive in the sphere of sexual relations. Rapists are unable to identify the equality between the two sex roles. The expression of mens masculinity is demonstrated in power rape. As Groth and Birnbaum (1979) stated, The intent of the power rapist is to assert his competency and validate his masculinity (as cited in Hall, 1995:76). Power rape is driven by fantasy. The power rapist projects his own desires on the victim, thereby interpreting her resistance as a facade of non-compliance. The rapists are exited by pain and suffering of the victim (Murphy Clare, 2003). The dehumanization of women reflects rapists inconsideration on others. The power rapists use language of instructional as to express conquest against women. (d) Physiological theory Physiological theory is the identification of the psychopathic personality (Senna Siegel, 1990). Psychopathic personality is caused by physical abnormality in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS mediates internal activities such as heart beat and blood pressure when associated with emotions. The physical abnormality can be caused by genetic and biochemical factors. Therefore, psychopathic personality is predisposed innately and is unaffected by socialization. Psychopath experiences lower arousal levels to stimuli and react differently from the normal. Therefore, it is possible that psychopaths are thrill seekers who engage in high-risk, antisocial activities to raise their general neurological level to a more optimal rate (Senna Siegel, 1990). Criminals are potential psychopaths who devoted in risky activities. As Freud developed, libidinal energy is internalized in particular zone of human, these zones are oral, anal, phallic and genital. These zones will evoke a feeling of pleasure when they are stimulated (Vogelman, 1990). Therefore, it is possible for men to have biological drive for sex. Moreover, As Gebbard, Gagnon, Pomeroy and Christenseon (1965) stated, In many mammals, coitus is preceded by a physical strugglethe physiological by-products of excitement and exertion is the increased heart rate, increased breathing, muscle tension, the greater supply of blood to the body surfaces, etc (cited in Vogelman, 1990: 39). Men rape not purely because of lust and lack of sex, but to facilitate sexual arousal. The arousal is obtained from the struggle of woman to produce a sense of excitement (Vogelman, 1990). Treatment As mentioned previously, the response of crime in positivism concentrates on treatment rather than punishment. Offenders who seem to have personality problems will undergo a psychological evaluation examined by forensic psychologists and psychiatrists (Senna Siegel, 1990). These professionals worked within the criminal justice system to assess the possibility of personality disorder. They also assert appropriate treatment to criminals according to their degree of deficiency. Treatment for rapists seeks to identify the causes of their deviant behavior, and to cure them by changing their thinking processing. Treatments for rapists include psychotherapy, behavior modification and biomedical therapy (Hall, 1995). There are three forms of psychotherapy: relapse prevention, cognitive therapy, and victim empathy. Relapse prevention is based on the belief that an event such as emotion and behavior are prior to rape, rapists are asked to identify the preceding events so that whenever the event appear they can consciously terminate their offensive behavior (Hall, 1995). Relapse prevention is the exercise of self control utilization. Cognitive therapy indoctrinates a moral perception to rapists that it is necessary to rationalize and justify their own offensive behavior (Hall, 1995). Victim empathy enables the rapists to empathize with his victims, thereby gaining recognition of the lasting impact of his action. In this therapy, rapist reenacts the rape from the perspective of a victim (Hall, 1995). A new moral reasoning system is constructed from this torture experience. Behavior modification is done by arousal control (Hall, 1995). It makes use of adverse conditions to control unacceptable behavior. For example, a rapist is assigned to be exposed to a scene which depicts a violent sexual encounter. If he is sexually aroused, he might receive a series of electrical shocks or might be subjected to an offensive odor (Hall, 1995). The purpose of the treatment is to cause the rapist to respond adversely to the thoughts of sexual violence. Thus, behavior is reformed. Biomedical therapy involves the use of drugs in conjunction with other forms of therapy. Drugs are used as a form of chemical castration that results in suppression of the manufacture of the sex hormones, testosterone. It may also use to suppress inappropriate fantasies and compulsive behavior (Hall, 1995). Offensive behavior can be removed. Psychological positivism as legal defense mechanism In criminal justice system, a voluntary act, the actus reus and a mental element, the mens reas are required to condemn someone to be guilty (Murphy Clare, 2003). The mental elements include the cognitive development and psychiatric conditions of the offenders. The cognitive development contributes to the ability to identify existing problems and formulate an effective way to solve the problems (Murphy Clare, 2003). If the development is interrupted, the offender is claimed to be no intention for their acts. Likely is the psychiatric illness sufferer. The criminal law recognizes these abnormal mental conditions of a person not to entirely responsible for their actions as intent for the commission of crime is negated (Senna Siegel, 1990). The mental state of unconscious is used as a legal defense mechanism. If a person is declared insane when they were committing crime, a judgment of not guilty by reason of insanity (cited in Senna Siegel, 1990) is entered. The person is then held in an institution for the criminally insane until found to be sane and eligible for release (Senna Siegel, 1990). Offenders can escape from punishment liked incarceration. Besides, involuntarily intoxication under duress or by mistake may also be an excuse to refute the crime committed. Even though voluntary intoxication can lessen the degree of crime because the defendant can prove they were lacking of critical element for mental intention (Senna Siegel, 1990). For example, a judgment may be decreased from first to second-degree murder. The defense mechanism in respect to psychological positivism is being criticized as it spurs crime as it releases criminal offenders. Criminal justice system is thus unjust. Conclusion The willingness of time and money consumption to investigate psychological positivism indicates that policymakers ascertain that personal trait is a contributing cause of criminality. Nevertheless, there are critiques in psychological positivism. Since positivism is a science, it is inaccessible to the general community. Power is centered in the hands of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists with their specialized knowledge (White Haines, 2003). Debate was also found on the efficacy of criminal profiling. Psychological positivism brings suspicious people into innocent criminals simply because they match certain personality traits (White Haines, 2003). In contrast, psychological positivism allows crime to be prevented by early intervention such as pre-school program to enforce discipline to children. Psychological positivism tends to construct a more harmonic society for the future.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Lack of Money - Research Paper Example In fact, it is money that drives the world at a rate so ever increasing. Indeed, without money, one cannot buy many products and services. Many laypeople feel that money is a necessary evil, and it is indeed considering that the lack of it makes life practically unbearable. On the other hand, money is one substance that motivates most of human activities and interactions including scientific research, space exploration, technological advancements, politics and business, the list being practically inexhaustible as noted by Krugman and Wells (2009). This paper discusses the lack of money and its close association with poverty and crime. It will be assumed that generally, lack of money amounts to poverty. One major problem that the world has ever so been grappling with since time immemorial is poverty. In the modern world, the lack of money can with reasonable confidence be summed as poverty or destitution. Absolute poverty is the condition that prevails when one cannot access basic human needs including education, clothing, food, clean water and shelter. On the other hand, relative poverty refers to the state of having less than acceptable level of money or resources as compared to other members of the society, country or community. Of the United States of America, Joseph Williams states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Today nearly 16 million Americans live in Ã¢â¬Å"deep or severe povertyÃ¢â¬ Ã (Williams, 2007, par 1). Traditionally, poverty has been considered part and parcel of every society considering that ancient modes of production could not offer the whole population a comfortable life (Kerbo, 2006). According to the United Nations, lack of money or poverty denies people the capacity to effectively participate in society. The organization also notes that lack of money predisposes individuals or/and communities to violence as they have to live in marginalized or fragile